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Chronic diseases are conditions with persistent effects that usually have complex causality, a long developmental period, a prolonged course and result in functional impairment or disability1. Examples of chronic diseases are diabetes, cardiovascular conditions and respiratory diseases. Chronic diseases currently pose the greatest burden of ill health in Australia having a significant personal and community burden as well as substantial economic costs (healthcare expenses and reduced productivity)1.

Having a chronic condition in childhood threatens the trajectory of typical development and is associated with increased risk of disability, hospitalisation, premature mortality and psychological problems as well as poorer physical and psychosocial outcomes in adulthood2-5. Notably, the limitations that chronic illness places on development (e.g. cognitive limitations, social limitations and emotional distress) can impact a child’s school readiness which affects their academic achievement and therefore has ramifications for long term health and wellbeing3. There is evidence that the way chronic illnesses impact the social and emotional development and academic achievement of children is shared across the range of conditions and their severities3,6.

Identifying the incidence of chronic diseases geographically can inform policy that aims to improve the health outcomes of children in the state for the lifespan1-3.

REFERENCES

  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [Internet]. Canberra ACT. Chronic Disease Overview. 2017 [cited 2018 May 8]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports-statistics/health-conditions-disability-deaths/chronic-disease/overview
  2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [Internet]. Canberra ACT. Selected Chronic Diseases Among Australian Children. 2017 [cited 2018 May 8]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-disease/selected-chronic-diseases-among-australia-s-childr/contents/table-of-contents
  3. Bell M, Bayliss D, Glauert R, Harrison A, Ohan J. Chronic illness and developmental vulnerability at school entry. Pediatrics, 2016; 137(5). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-2475
  4. Gledhill J, Rangel L, Garralda E. Surviving chronic physical illness: Psychosocial outcome in adult life. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2000; 83(2):104-10. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.83.2.104
  5. Stam H, Hartman E, Deurloo J, Groothoff J, Grootenhuis M. Young adult patients with a history of pediatric disease: impact on course of life and      transition into adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2006; 39(1):4-13.      Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.03.011 
  6. Stein RE, Jessop DJ. What diagnosis does not tell: The case for a noncategorical approach to chronic illnesses in childhood. Social Science & Medicine, 1989; 29(6):769-778. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(89)90157-3

Data Source 

Hospital Morbidity Data Collection, Emergency Department Data Collection, Western Australian Cancer Registry

Numerator

Number of hospitalisations related to a chronic condition from population aged 0-18

Denominator

Population aged 0-18

Unit of Measure 

 Per 10,000 population

Geography

SA2, SA3, LGA

Data Confidentiality

Areas with count values 1 to 4 and where population is less than 50 have been supressed

Notes

Includes public and private hospital records only. Private specialist and GP information not included. Untreated/undiagnosed chronic illness also not captured.

Chronic conditions identified using the following ICD classification codes:

 

CHRONIC   CONDITIONS

ICD-10   Codes

ICD-9   Codes

Cardiovascular Conditions

I05-I09

I25

I50

I10-I15

I27,   I31, I34-I37, I39, I44, I45, I51

I60-I69

393-398

401-405

414

416

425

428

430-438

Cancers

*Used Cancer Registry data primarily

C00-C96

D37-D48

Z51.1

Z85

140-195

196-198

199

200-208

209

235

238-239

Diabetes

E10-E14

250

775.1

Respiratory Diseases

J45

J43

J41-J42

J44

491

492

493

496

Musculoskeletal Diseases

M08-M09

M15-M19

M80-M85

714.3

714.4

715

733.00-733.09

Chronic Kidney Disease

N11

N18

N19

403

582

585

590.0

Oral Diseases

K00-K14

520-529

Chronic Otitis Media

H65.2-H65.4

H66.1-H66.3

H66.9

381.1

381.2

381.3

382.1

382.2

382.3

382.9